Palladium - carbene catalyzed direct arylation of five - membered heteroaromatics
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Due to the industrial importance of bi(hetero)arenes, the synthesis of these compounds by homogeneous Pd-catalyzed direct arylation is an important research topic in modern organic chemistry. In this study, PEPPSI-type, (PEPPSI ¼ Pyridine Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation), new Pdcatalysts with N-heterocyclic carbene ligand were synthesized, and they were used as catalysts in the synthesis of bi(hetero)arenes by direct arylation process. The structures of Pd-carbene complexes were elucidated by different spectroscopic and analytical techniques such as NMR, FT-IR and elemental analysis. The more detailed structural characterization of one of the complexes was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. Pd-carbene complexes were used as effective catalysts in the direct arylation of five-membered heteroaromatics such as thiophene, furan and thiazole derivatives with (hetero)aryl bromides for 1 h, in the presence of 1 mol% of catalyst loading, and successful results were obtained.
SourceJournal of Molecular Structure