Influence of coloring liquid immersion on flexural strength, vickers hardness, and color of zirconia
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Statement of problem: Zirconia is a widely used restorative material, yet its white color does not meet esthetic requirements and coloring is needed. However, the effects of different durations of coloring have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of coloring liquid immersion of different durations on the flexural strength, Vickers hardness, and color of zirconia. Material and methods: Fifty bar-shaped and 60 disk-shaped zirconia specimens were milled from nonshaded (Copran Zri) and preshaded (Copran Zri Precoloured Medium) disks by using a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system. Preshaded specimens were assigned to the group PS and received no further immersion. Nonshaded specimens were divided into 4 subgroups as per immersion time in coloring liquid (Copran Color A2 Shade): control (C; no immersion), G45 (45 seconds of immersion), G90 (90 seconds of immersion), and G135 (135 seconds of immersion). Bar-shaped specimens were subjected to a 3-point flexural strength test by using a universal testing machine (Lloyd LRX), following the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6872:2015 specification. Color coordinates of disk-shaped specimens were measured with a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0) over a gray background. Color differences were calculated by using both CIE76 and CIEDE2000 formulas, followed by a comparison of obtained values with perceptibility (CIE76: 3.7, CIEDE2000: 0.8) and acceptability (CIE76: 6.8, CIEDE2000: 1.8) thresholds of each formula. Subsequently, Vickers hardness measurements were conducted. The data were statistically analyzed by using the Shapiro-Wilk test, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). Results: Immersing zirconia specimens in coloring liquid decreased the flexural strength and hardness values, as group C presented the highest values for both parameters. In addition, prolonged duration had a negative effect on mechanical properties. The flexural strength of groups PS and G45 (P=.993) and groups G90 and G135 (P=.999) was statistically similar. For Vickers hardness, group G135 presented the lowest values with the difference between groups G90 and G135 being statistically similar (P=.061). Color differences among groups varied from 2.49 to 27.33 for ΔE∗, whereas ΔE00 values ranged from 0.58 to 8.26. Compared with group C, ΔE∗ values of all shaded specimens exceeded the acceptability threshold of 6.8. The color difference between each group was higher than the acceptability threshold values of both ΔE∗ and ΔE00 except for groups G45 and PS. Conclusions: Colored zirconia specimens had lower flexural strength and Vickers hardness values than nonshaded specimens, regardless of the immersion time or coloring technique.
SourceJournal of Prosthetic Dentistry
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