Endoscopic endonasal approach to giant pituitary adenomas: Surgical outcomes and review of the literature
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- OBJECTIVE: To present the outcomes of endoscopic endonasal surgery for giant pituitary adenomas and discuss the extent of resection to minimize morbidity and mortality. - METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 44 patients with giant pituitary adenomas who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery. Clinical presentation, laboratory results, imaging studies, clinical outcomes, extent of resection, and complications were collected and analyzed. Factors affecting long-term outcome according to surgical technique were identified and analyzed. - RESULTS: Radical resection (RR) was defined as either gross total resection or near-total resection (90%e100% of the tumor). There were 28 patients (63.6%) who underwent RR, 10 patients (22.7%) who underwent subtotal resection, and 6 patients (13.6%) who underwent partial resection. Visual improvement was achieved in 27 patients (81.8%). Thirteen patients (72.2%) with pituitary dysfunction had improvement in at least 1 preoperative endocrinological dysfunction. RR rates for dumbbell and multilobular tumors were 44.4% and 28.6%, respectively. Surgical complications were observed in 14 (31.8%) patients. Major vascular injury occurred in 3 patients (6.8%). Mean follow-up period was 38.5 months (range, 1e70 months). No patients with RR had recurrence or residual tumor progression. Ten patients (22.7%) received adjuvant radiation therapy after resection. Two patients were reoperated on for tumor regrowth, and 3 patients (including the 2 patients with tumor regrowth) were lost to follow-up - CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow-up results and low recurrence rate of tumors indicate that RR is effective to decrease morbidity and mortality.
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