Vitamin D mitigates atherosclerosis risk in TNF-α-induced endothelial cells
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Abstract Purpose: To determine the effect of vitamin D on endothelial function in a cell line model of inflammation. Methods: Human saphenous vein cells were treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-OHD) and/or TNF-α, and the expression levels of 20 different atherosclerotic cytokines were examined in the treated cells using a human atherosclerosis antibody array. The STRING and PANTHER analyses were also performed to determine the possible pathway interactions of these four pro-atherosclerotic and two antiatherosclerotic cytokines. Results: The expression levels of pro-atherosclerotic cytokines GM-CSF, CCL20, CCL5, and TNF-α decreased upon 1,25-OHD administration, whereas those of anti-atherosclerotic cytokines PDGFB and TGF-β3 increased. Conclusion: Vitamin D could mitigate cardiovascular risks by mediating the expression of inflammatory cytokines; however, this needs to be verified via in vivo studies.