The effects of Internet-based exercise compared with supervised group exercise in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study
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Objectives: To compare the effects of Internet-based exercise on glycaemic control, blood lipids, body composition, physical activity level, functional capacity, and quality of life with supervised group exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design: Single-blind, randomized controlled study. Setting: A Faculty of Health Sciences. Subjects: A total of 65 patients with type 2 diabetes (47 women, 18 men). Intervention: Group A (n=22), control group - physical activity counselling once with a brochure. Group B (n=22), supervised group-based exercise, three days per week for eight weeks. Group C (n=21), Internet-based exercise following the same programme via a website. Main measures: Primary outcomes - glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and cholesterol. Secondary outcomes - waist and hip circumferences, body mass index, number of steps, six-minute walking test, and Euro-Quality of Life-5 Dimension. Results: After treatment, glycaemic control (mean change for Group B; Group C; -0.80%, -0.91%, P=0.003), waist circumference (-4.23cm, 5.64cm, P=0.006), and quality of life (0.26, 0.15, P=0.013) significantly improved in both training groups compared with the control group. Fasting blood glucose (-46.86mg/dL, P=0.009) and hip circumference (-2.7cm, P=0.011) were significantly decreased in Group B and total cholesterol (-16.4mg/dL, P=0.028), six-minute walking distance (30.5m, P=0.01), and number of steps (1258.05, P=0.023) significantly improved in Group C compared with control group. Group B and Group C changed with equal magnitude. Conclusion: In type 2 diabetes, supervised group-based and Internet-based exercise can improve equally glycaemic control, waist circumference, and quality of life, and both are better than simply counselling.